Menopause and Body Changes

Key points

  • Some body changes and accompanying symptoms that occur during the menopausal transition and beyond menopause may be related to lower levels of oestrogen while others result from the ageing process.
  • Body changes and symptoms may be many and varied and can be mitigated by adoption of a healthy lifestyle.
  • HRT may be useful for some women with body changes; however it should not be regarded as an anti-ageing therapy. 

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Skin

Hair

Teeth

Vulva and vagina

Bladder

Joints and muscles

Weight changes

References

1. Shifren JL, Gass ML. The North American Menopause Society recommendations for clinical care of midlife women. Menopause (New York, NY). 2014;21(10):1038-62.

2. Thornton MJ. Estrogens and aging skin. Dermato-endocrinology. 2013;5(2):264-70.

3. Hall G, Phillips TJ. Estrogen and skin: the effects of estrogen, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy on the skin. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2005;53(4):555-68; quiz 69-72.

4. Kligman AM. Postmenopausal acne. Cutis 1991;47(6):425 - 6.

5. Ernster VL, Grady D, Miike R, Black D, Selby J, Kerlikowske K. Facial wrinkling in men and women, by smoking status. American journal of public health. 1995;85(1):78-82.

6. Pandel R, Poljsak B, Godic A, Dahmane R. Skin photoaging and the role of antioxidants in its prevention. ISRN dermatology. 2013;2013:930164.

7. Blume-Peytavi U, Atkin S, Gieler U, Grimalt R. Skin academy: hair, skin, hormones and menopause - current status/knowledge on the management of hair disorders in menopausal women. European journal of dermatology : EJD. 2012;22(3):310-8.

8. Brincat MP, Baron YM, Galea R. Estrogens and the skin. Climacteric. 2005;8(2):110-23.

9. Ali I, Wojnarowska F. Physiological changes in scalp, facial and body hair after the menopause: a cross-sectional population-based study of subjective changes. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164(3):508-13.

10. Scully C, Cawson RA. Medical problems in dentistry: Wright•PSG; 1982.

11. Foran T. Managing menopausal symptoms. Australian Prescriber. 2010;33:171 – 5.

12. Iosif CS, Bekassy Z. Prevalence of Genitourinary Symptoms in the Late Menopause. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1984;63(3):257 - 60.

13. Bianco V, Penna A, Rebora P. Correlations between trophism of the external genitalia and hormone levels during menopausal age. Annali di Ostetricia, Ginecologia, Medicina Perinatale 1991;112(1):41 - 53.

14. Portman DJ, Gass ML. Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause: New Terminology for Vulvovaginal Atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health and The North American Menopause Society. Journal of The Sexual Medicine. 2014.

15. Cody JD, Jacobs ML, Richardson K, Moehrer B, Hextall A. Oestrogen therapy for urinary incontinence in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:Cd001405.

16. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Gracia CR, Pien GW, Nelson DB, et al. Symptoms associated with menopausal transition and reproductive hormones in midlife women. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2007;110(2 Pt 1):230-40.

17. Nevitt MC, Felson DT. Sex hormones and the risk of osteoarthritis in women: epidemiological evidence. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996;55(9):673-6.

18. Welton AJ, Vickers MR, Kim J, Ford D, Lawton BA, MacLennan AH, et al. Health related quality of life after combined hormone replacement therapy: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal. 2008;337:a1190.

19. Davis SR, Castelo-Branco C, Chedraui P, Lumsden MA, Nappi RE, Shah D, et al. Understanding weight gain at menopause. Climacteric. 2012;15(5):419-29. 

 

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November 2014 

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