19 November 2020
The article by Mauvais-Jarvis et al.  is a mini-review that highlights experimental evidence on the potent immunomodulatory role of steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). The review discusses how different concentrations of estrogens, P4, and androgens between women and men and genetic factors may explain the lower mortality in women compared to men. Moreover, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine storm in coronavirus disease, how females exhibit more significant immune responses to viruses, the evolution f coronavirus disease in èregnant women and the immune-modulatory function of estrogen-progestin therapies are illustrated. The authors also claim that acute combined E2 and P4 treatment may represent a safe and viable strategy that deserves to be tested in clinical trials to mitigate severe COVID-19 outcomes. The possibility of off-label use of these approved drugs for human use as potentially life-saving therapeutics needs to be explored.