21 September, 2015:
Sleep disturbances increase with advancing age in both women and men although inherent gender differences are apparent. Older women take longer to fall asleep, have greater difficulty in staying asleep, have more daytime sleepiness, less stage 1 and stage 2 NREM sleep. Older women are also more likely to develop insomnia, the restless sleep syndrome and its accompanying sleep disturbances and have more obstructive sleep apneic symptoms compared to older men .
Human and animal studies have shown that gender and gonadal hormones do influence the circadian and homeostatic processes, although it remains unknown whether the gender-associated differences in the sleep/wake cycle are mediated by either, or both, of these processes. The studies addressing the subject are still speculative, but there is evidence that both the sex chromosomes and gonadal hormones are very likely to contribute to these differences at cellular, organic and systemic levels, whilst environmental, social and cultural influences are also likely to further impact on these differences in sleep .